Solution Overview & Team Lead Details

Our Organization


What is the name of your solution?

NAAVA: Nest Amphibious Abode for Viable Flood Adaptation

Provide a one-line summary of your solution.

NestAbide's NAAVA project is a viable flood adaptation strategy that establishes affordable, vernacular-designed amphibious houses which can float during floods, while also considering a transnational regulatory framework.

Film your elevator pitch.

What specific problem are you solving?

Problem: Global climate change is causing slow but steady sea-level rise. People and infrastructure in coastal zones, as well as increased socioeconomic expansion in coastal profiles, demonstrate that global sea-level rise will be a major issue with significant consequences for human civilization. Increased riverine (fluvial) and rain-induced (pluvial) floods caused by more intense weather patterns, as well as higher run-off volumes, will exacerbate the issue. Flood mitigation and climate change adaptation are essential to deal with these dangers. Amphibious structures are one of the potential flood-resilience and climate-change adaption options. But, are all people given an equal opportunity to adapt to and escape floods by employing amphibious and/or floating dwelling solutions? At the moment, not so much. 

NestAbide, based in Kerala, South India, was already investigating the potential of amphibious housing in 2018 when the state was hit by devastating floods and landslides that affected 5.4 million people, displaced 1.4 million people, and claimed the lives of 433 people. Over 17,000 dwellings were destroyed, while another 2.17 lakh were damaged. Up until then, the team was focusing few regions like Kuttanadu and Munroethuruthu (Munroe Islands) in Kerala that are periodically flooded. The 2018 floods demonstrated that various parts of Kerala are prone to flooding in the coming years.  According to a recent research, 1.81 billion people (23% of the world's population) are directly vulnerable to once-in-a-century floods. 1.24 billion of these are in South and East Asia, where China (395 million) and India (390 million) account for more than one-third of worldwide exposure. 89% of flood-affected individuals live in low- and middle-income nations. 


What is your solution?

NAAVA: Nest Amphibious Abode for Viable Flood Adaptation. 

NestAbide's Naava project, which also means "boat" in Sanskrit, is a three-phase strategic mission for establishing amphibious flood adaptation strategy using co-creation.

According to extensive survey and experience in Munroe Islands and Kuttanadu in Kerala, individuals from low and moderate income families are reluctant to try out reasonably priced floating structures. When the world advances to floating cities, we must first meet them in the middle, which is affordable amphibious homes that do not require significant changes to their usual lifestyle. 

An amphibious house is a flood-resistant structure that sits on the ground and floats on a buoyant base when flood water rises. When the water recedes, it will return to the earth, keeping the residents and the home safe during a flood. The key components are a buoyant foundation that allows it float, guide posts to limit horizontal motion and ensure it stays in the same spot before and after floods, and flexible utility lines. A wet dock is a base that permits the entire structure to rest below ground level. If the home is to be built above ground level, wet dock can be avoided. 

Video: Working of an amphibious house

As the primary phase, NestAbide's in-house design and construction team can now build amphibious homes (residential and recreational) with a concrete buoyant foundation, steel framework, and cement panels. The space within the buoyant foundation can also be utilized for living. Our recent design for an amphibious project, supported by the Kerala Government, is for two low-income families of Kuttanadu and Munroethuruthu. According to material pricing in the fourth quarter of 2022, one such amphibious house with around 900 square feet of living area would cost roughly USD 25,000. This means it will cost around $27 per square foot. We are attempting to bring costs further down by employing lean construction technique and vernacular materials, so that it may be undertaken at the Panchayath (Local Government body) level, simplifying implementation. 

NestAbide's NAAVA

Amphibious house by NestAbide during dry and floating condition

Kerala's vernacular architecture illustrates climate responsive elements that will contribute to the sustainability of a house during rainy and non-rainy season. Excessive moisture is controlled by Kerala's vernacular architectural principles such as building orientation to the sun and wind, spatial arrangement and usage, cross ventilation, and pitched roof. The porch that surrounds the structure shields the wooden walls from rain, increasing the life of the wood. In the secondary phase, the team will design amphibious houses using these principles and wooden superstructure. Bamboo framework, plywood panels and a combination sloped roof are designed over concrete (or alternate material) buoyant foundation. Steel, recycled plastic or HDPE (high density polyethylene) barrels, bamboo, EPS (expandable polystyrene) and combination, are the alternative materials that can be used to create the buoyant foundation.

Vernacular amphibious house

Who does your solution serve, and in what ways will the solution impact their lives?

Individuals residing in flood-prone areas in Kuttanadu and Munroethuruthu in Kerala's Alappuzha and Kollam districts, respectively, will serve as the target population in the first phase, as mentioned in the solution section. As a pilot for the phase, the team is already collaborating with the state government of Kerala to build two amphibious houses for two low-income families chosen by the local administration. The area's continual flooding is compounding their situation by inflicting more damage to their conventional houses and making it difficult for inhabitants to sustain them. This is an important concern since it not only affects the livability of the dwellings but also poses a risk to the occupants' safety. Elevated housing are currently being used as an alternate method. Technically, it is not sound for certain areas of Kerala with silty-clayey soil, and the anomalies in locating firm stratum below the ground level make piling of raised houses challenging and expensive. Elevated housing has a cultural impact on people's feeling of community and neighborhood. 

In the second phase, the target population will be enlarged to the state level, and then to the national level, subject to certain geographic constraints. The third phase is the establishment of a transnational regulatory framework and the large-scale implementation of amphibious to floating developments across countries. 

Considering social and cultural acceptance of the people in Kerala, the adaptation strategy will focus on using concrete buoyant foundation and steel framework with cement and wooden panels during the initial phase of NAAVA; second phase will use low-carbon concrete buoyant foundation, bamboo framework, and wooden panels; and third phase will transition to zero carbon buoyant foundation materials, with timber house structure built in accordance with well-defined regulations. 

The gradual but steady adaptation will assist individuals living in flood-prone regions in easing into the behavioral shift to resilient amphibious housing and, eventually, floating communities. Unlike the Netherlands, where people simply embraced living with water, other regions of the world, particularly developing countries like India, require nudges to adjust. After all, we're talking about their 'safe haven'. Transitioning from an amphibious housing which demands little adjustment in their lifestyle, enables people to trust the process and, subsequently, to accept floating villages and floating cities. Amphibious housing, which is both affordable and viable, will encourage people to live near and on water.

How are you and your team well-positioned to deliver this solution?

NestAbide, an officially constituted duo team in 2019, began after a ground zero house-to-house survey in Munroethuruthu for study on the flooding problem and the 2018 Kerala floods. The founders carried out translational research in several domains connected to amphibious housing to translate theory into practice. They gradually passed on their knowledge via internships for about 300 students, and trainings and seminars for about 4000 graduates and professionals, in amphibious housing, flood modeling, and wetland rejuvenation. 

In India, the team executed multiple flood-resistant research, design, and conventional building projects. (See here  The founders worked on amphibious research project funded by the National Research Council of Canada under the amphibious pioneer Prof. Dr. Elizabeth C. English of University of Waterloo.  

After significant resistance and criticism in their home state, the team built India's first working prototype of an amphibious pavilion to demonstrate how the technology works, using only the founders' personal funds. Essentially, the initial phase was: how to convince people that concrete floats. The 'Amphi Nest' prototype was built, in 2021, with a concrete buoyant foundation, steel and bamboo superstructure, and a wet dock to simulate flood water levels and demonstrate how it floats. (Amphi Nest: India's first amphibious working prototype of a pavilion with simulated water levels) The procedure with construction workers who had never worked in flood-prone areas was a co-creation process in and of itself, particularly during the heavy rainfall season. Following successful testing, Kerala's Minister for Agriculture launched and dedicated the prototype to the community, capturing the interest of the public as well as various national and international media platforms. Later, the Kerala state government agreed to fund the building of two amphibious dwelling homes for two low-income families living in a flood-prone area.

Amphi Nest by NestAbide

NestAbide signed up an interdisciplinary team and 35 on-call consultants for design, engineering, and management, with around 70% women, as well as a construction crew of 15 experienced workers in the construction, electrical, and plumbing sectors for several projects. The team has a large network, offices, and partner enterprises in the districts of Kottayam and Trivandrum, which are both near to the designated flood-prone zones of the first phase of NAAVA. Six national and international relationships have been established, as well as mentor support from the Netherlands and Canada. The team is a member of numerous floating communities in the Netherlands, as well as Communities of Practice (COP) with the Global Centre on Adaptation (GCA) and COP of Kerala Development and Innovation Strategic Council (KDISC), a government institution.  

During the first phase of NAAVA, stakeholders such as residents of the areas, representatives, local women groups, construction workers, and others will be consulted for the co-creation of amphibious homes. The team has already had focus group sessions with all stakeholders from nine Panchayaths (local government) in Munroethuruthu and Kuttanadu. Construction workers and residents have provided ground level data for the pilot's deployment. This participatory method will be continued until the third phase by incorporating decision makers and stakeholders of authority in the establishment of regulations.

Which dimension of the Challenge does your solution most closely address?

Support informal communities in upgrading to more resilient housing, including financing, design, and low-carbon materials or energy sources.

In what city, town, or region is your solution team headquartered?


In what country is your solution team headquartered?

  • India

What is your solution’s stage of development?

Pilot: An organization testing a product, service, or business model with a small number of users

How many people does your solution currently serve?

NestAbide is currently being supported by the Kerala Development Innovation and Strategic Council (KDISC), a think tank of Government of Kerala to build 2 low-cost amphibious houses for 2 families, total of 8 inhabitants from Munroethuruthu and Kuttanadu. The initiative is called "The Amphibious Project" and is at the design stage. 

Why are you applying to Solve?

NAAVA: Nest Amphibious Abode for Viable Flood Adaptation, the strategic endeavor of NestAbide, requires a trustworthy support community for inspiration even outside of floating communities. With impact-minded leaders, we must spread the answer on a global scale. Adaptation is a gradual process that requires everyone to pitch in and support individuals living in flood-prone areas across the world. Not all circumstances are the same, but everyone deserves a fair opportunity at surviving. Climate change adaptation techniques must be continuously discussed, co-created, transmitted, assessed, criticized, and developed. 

As a result, we need the Solve team's cooperation to analyze, co-create, and gather supports to develop and evaluate NAAVA for deserving humans all around the world. We need to use the network to locate affordable and low-carbon materials for amphibious foundations and other components, form partnerships in design and construction, and identify contractors that can assist us in reaching the solution at the grass-roots level. We hope to explore novel materials, markets, and machinery through SOLVE. 

A transnational regulatory framework will also benefit the current floating communities. We need legal and policy professionals who can read beyond what has previously been written. The greater view is always needed to scale up on a global scale, and a larger perspective will always emerge in a group. 

The lack of financial structures that support climate adaption options that may not generate profits right away was preventing us from progressing past the prototype stage. Despite the fact that NestAbide has completed various construction projects such as frame and panel structures, rebuilding, house restoration, wetland rejuvenation projects, and even flood prone region identification through modeling, the amphibious housing are still in the prototype-pilot phase. The present pilot phase has its own set of constraints in terms of living area, connectivity, cost, and so on. People also need financial incentives and subsidies to build such houses, for at least the pilot initiatives for experimental risks. Because of a shortage of adaption funds, practically almost all amphibious developments have been limited to recreational purposes. 

The design, team and stakeholders are ready, NestAbide's NAAVA project seeks support to evaluate our existing systems, establish and accelerate the impact through scalability. We seek the backing of MIT Solve and its partners to develop affordable and viable amphibious housing, a transition bridge to floating futures. 

When a flood strikes, everyone must have a seat aboard 'Naava,' the boat. 

In which of the following areas do you most need partners or support?

  • Financial (e.g. accounting practices, pitching to investors)
  • Product / Service Distribution (e.g. delivery, logistics, expanding client base)
  • Public Relations (e.g. branding/marketing strategy, social and global media)

Who is the Team Lead for your solution?

Nanma Gireesh

More About Your Solution

What makes your solution innovative?

NAAVA: Nest Amphibious Abode for Viable Flood Adaptation. The key value propositions of NAAVA houses and the strategy are as follows: 

  • NAAVA houses are designed using vernacular principles that prioritize affordability without sacrificing comfort and quality. This approach ensures that low-income people living in flood-prone areas have access to housing that is both affordable and functional.
  • The affordable and eco-friendly design using wood and bamboo for the superstructure, makes them highly climate-friendly and sustainable. It also ensures that the houses can be easily disassembled and recycled when they reach the end of their useful life.
  • NAAVA houses are adaptable with different infrastructure and can also be integrated with renewable energy systems such as solar panels. This makes them highly efficient and sustainable, reducing their carbon footprint and energy costs. 
  • These can be designed to withstand natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, and cyclones, making them highly resilient and safe. 
  • NAAVA houses are constructed using pre-fabricated building technology, which reduces construction time and costs significantly, making them highly accessible and practical for low-income people living in flood-prone areas.
  • Amphibious houses are designed to suit the specific land and water conditions of the areas they are built in, ensuring that they are functional, durable, and sustainable.
  • Using vernacular principles that promote proper ventilation and lighting, ensuring that residents can live in comfortable and healthy indoor environments.
  • These houses can be integrated with adaptable sanitation systems that use eco-friendly waste management techniques, making them highly sustainable and environmentally friendly.
  • The additional space inside their foundation can be used for a variety of purposes such as storage or additional living space. This makes them highly versatile and functional.
  • NAAVA houses promote living with water, encouraging people to adapt to and embrace their natural surroundings rather than trying to fight against them.
  • The best part about NAAVA project is that it integrates implementation of affordable adaptation technology as well as establishing viable regulatory frameworks to ensure that the houses are built and maintained to the viable law, policies and regulations in a transnational environment. 

What are your impact goals for the next year and the next five years, and how will you achieve them?

In the coming years, our aim is to develop the pilot phase in different regions using alternative material combinations within the next two years. Afterward, we plan to scale up both within India and expand to new countries, as discussed in the phases of the NAAVA project strategy.

Currently, we are already part of several floating communities and partnerships and mentored by experts like Dr. Elizabeth English (University of Waterloo, Canada), Dr. Chris Zevenbergen (TU Delft and UNESCO IHE Delft, Netherlands), Dr. Koen Olthuis (Founder, Waterstudio, Netherlands), and several others from all around the globe. We are part of the COP of the Global Centre on Adaptation (GCA) in the Netherlands and also with Kerala Development Innovation and Strategic Council (KDISC) in Kerala. Furthermore, we are part of several consortia within the Netherlands. Our goal is to establish partnership connections with Easy Housing, a SOLVER team from the Netherlands. We have already partnered with Buoyant Foundation Project based in Canada, as well as Indymo based in the Netherlands, a firm focusing on ecology and water quality evaluation using water drone systems. We are an international coordination partner of a floating consortium based in the Netherlands working to develop floating futures. We are supported by Government of Kerala organizations to establish amphibious buildings in Kerala. 

Five year milestone

  1. Establish a global community for amphibious buildings and promote awareness of using NAAVA amphibious houses.

  2. Develop a transnational network to create a regulatory framework for amphibious buildings, working with government agencies, policymakers, and other stakeholders to establish standards for construction, safety, and sustainability.

  3. Provide NAAVA designs for at least 5,000 amphibious houses around the world, including alternative materials, variations that can adapt to different environments, climate conditions, and cultural preferences.

  4. Create housing for at least 25,000 inhabitants in flood-prone areas, with an average of 5 residents per home, providing safety during floods. 

  5. Establish a network of material providers, contractors, and local construction workers to support the production and delivery of NAAVA homes in different regions, leveraging local expertise and resources.

  6. Train at least 1,000 STEM graduates and 2,000 construction workers to work on NAAVA projects, equipping them with the skills to build, maintain, and innovate amphibious technology.

  7. Develop an efficient supply chain to enable the construction of at least 1,000 homes, optimizing the use of materials, logistics, and quality control to reduce costs and improve scalability.

  8. Establish a social enterprise model that empowers local communities to build and maintain their own NAAVA homes, creating sustainable jobs and income opportunities that support local economies and reduce dependence on external aid.

  9. Provide affordable amphibious houses through viable regulatory mechanisms, working with stakeholders and partners to ensure that NAAVA homes are accessible to low and middle-income families in developing and developed countries.

  10. Promote behavioral adaptation and social awareness, starting in Kerala, then in other states of India, later expanding to neighboring countries like Bangladesh and so on. 

  11. Generating revenue growth using recreational and residential NAAVA houses to further establish adaptation practices in a global level. 

Which of the UN Sustainable Development Goals does your solution address?

  • 5. Gender Equality
  • 6. Clean Water and Sanitation
  • 9. Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
  • 11. Sustainable Cities and Communities
  • 13. Climate Action
  • 14. Life Below Water
  • 17. Partnerships for the Goals

What is your theory of change?

Goal: The aim of NAAVA: Nest Amphibious Abode for Affordable Flood Adaptation is to help low-income people living in flood-prone areas to adapt to their environment by providing them with affordable housing options using viable regulatory mechanism.

Activities: To achieve this goal, NAAVA will engage in several activities over three phases, as described in earlier sections, such as developing and providing the affordable design for at least 10,000 amphibious homes, starting with Munroethuruthu and Kuttanadu in Kerala. Later phases focus on expanding to other states and establishing a transnational community to develop regulatory frameworks for amphibious buildings, creating partnerships with building and financial partners in at least 5 countries including India, Bangladesh, Netherlands etc. The activities will include training workers in amphibious building construction, and establishing a social enterprise model that empowers local communities to build and maintain their own NAAVA homes.

Outputs: These activities is expected to lead to outputs such as the provision of housing for 25,000 inhabitants (4 residents per home on average), the creation of 4000 job opportunities in 5 years.  

Outcomes: These outputs will then lead to longer-term outcomes such as the establishment of a global community for amphibious buildings, behavioral adaptation finding the 25,000 inhabitants in flood-prone areas, the establishment of a network with material providers, contractors and local construction workers, creation of affordable amphibious houses through viable regulatory mechanisms etc. 

Impact: Ultimately, the impact of NAAVA will be seen in the improvement of behavioral adaptation and social awareness towards sustainable climate resilient housing solutions. The people will find amphibious, the transition path to floating futures, without leaving their existing livelihood, the improvement in revenue generation, the possible employment opportunities for local contractors and workers, and the provision of economically viable solutions for low and middle-income countries.

Describe the core technology that powers your solution.

The core technology that powers our solution is an innovative approach to amphibious construction, based on Archimedes' theory. This approach requires a buoyant foundation, mooring posts for anchoring, and flexible lines for utilities, which are essential for floating constructions that remain permanently on water. In addition to these components, our amphibious structures take into account geographical variables such as soil and ground strata to transfer the load directly on the ground during static dry periods. The buoyant foundation, designed to withstand water pressure from the outside, is either left with a vacant space within or filled with buoyant filler materials, which contributes to the overall buoyancy of the system and supports the additional load on top, i.e., the superstructure. 

Our solution also integrates vernacular principles to balance the entire house and foundation, such as providing a porch around the house and concentrating the load at the center, which lowers the structure's center of gravity and aids in structural balance. This innovative technology helps us create amphibious buildings that can withstand weather changes and climate patterns, while providing a safe and sustainable housing solution for flood-prone areas. 

Which of the following categories best describes your solution?

A new application of an existing technology

Please select the technologies currently used in your solution:

  • Ancestral Technology & Practices
  • Imaging and Sensor Technology
  • Virtual Reality / Augmented Reality

In which countries do you currently operate?

  • India

In which countries will you be operating within the next year?

  • Bangladesh
  • India
  • Netherlands
Your Team

What type of organization is your solution team?

For-profit, including B-Corp or similar models

How many people work on your solution team?

Full-time staff - 4; On-call consultants (for amphibious) - 9; Expert mentors - 4; Contractors - 4; Workers - 15

How long have you been working on your solution?

The founding partner's research on amphibious houses commenced in 2017. NestAbide as a team has officially been working on amphibious housing research and implementation for 4 years from 2019.

What is your approach to incorporating diversity, equity, and inclusivity into your work?

NestAbide was co-founded and is managed by a woman with a civil engineering background who owns the majority of the firm. The other male founder has a background in electrical engineering. The team is made up of 70% women in the design and management sections, and opportunities have always been provided to recruit more women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields to work on climate change adaptation. The team assists women and those who have had a professional break to restart via training and interning on flood adaptation projects. 

To put it in perspective, the construction crew, welding, electrical, plumbing, painting, and finishing teams are almost entirely composed of males. Despite the fact that there are many women in construction in Kerala, their presence is inconsistent in our team.We also oversee the team's construction precautions, and safety. 

The whole team comes from various disciplinary backgrounds, which makes the group varied and allows them to approach problems from multiple perspectives. The team members are from various religions, castes, and socioeconomic backgrounds. The design and technical teams can also work online when necessary and take time for themselves. Monthly holidays and work-from-home allowances are offered so that employees can spend at least one week every month in their hometown, unless they are asked to manage the construction. Pay parity between men and women is likewise observed at NestAbide. For junior team members, the founder herself takes time and stress management sessions. Our team includes people from both India and Bangladesh. Our experts stem from different states in India, Canada, and European nations such as the Netherlands and Poland. Almost all technical members are given the chance to connect with international mentors. 

NestAbide, especially because it is situated in Kerala, is certain that every member is literate, even construction workers, and that the majority of them are technically proficient with certifications. The projects of NestAbide also focus different socio-economic clients and beneficiaries without bias. 

We believe that there are no skilled and unskilled workers division in NestAbide. Every team member is equally recognized, supported and appreciated in NestAbide.  

Your Business Model & Funding

What is your business model?

The business model for NAAVA strategy involves following elements:

Target Population:

  • Low-income people living in flood-prone areas who lack access to affordable and resilient housing.
  • Stakeholders including residents, representatives, contractors, construction workers, experts and professionals over different phases as shown. Phase 1: Munroethuruthu and Kuttanadu, Kerala, India; Phase 2: Kerala and other states in India and Bangladesh; Phase 3: Parallely started with phase 1 - a transnational approach with multiple stakeholders from developing and developed countries. 

Value Proposition (was discussed in earlier sections): It includes affordable and sustainable housing solutions that are designed to withstand floods mainly, integration with existing utility infrastructure or renewable energy systems like solar, promotion of adaptable sanitation systems using eco-friendly waste management technique, etc. to name a few. 


  • NAAVA offers pre-fabricated houses using vernacular principles and timber materials for superstructure.
  • Design and engineering services to ensure that each house is tailored to the specific needs of the target population and the local environment.


  • Leverages its network of local partners and suppliers to source materials and assemble houses on-site, reducing construction time and costs.
  • NAAVA also works closely with local communities and organizations to ensure that each house is built according to local regulations and standards.


  • Revenue through the design and construction of pre-fabricated houses 
  • Recreational houses, to promote occupancy experience via tourism. 
  • NAAVA also partners with governments, and other national and international organizations to secure funding or incentivizing housing projects and to expand its reach to more low-income communities.

Business models

1. Solution Provider Model

A. NAAVA Design and Engineering - NestAbide provides architectural design, structural design, interdisciplinary engineering consultancy and construction management for amphibious building development with mentors and partners from India, Canada and the Netherlands. 

B. Eco & Green Model - Our team is pledged to reform water conservation and wetland rejuvenation through eco-friendly and sustainable measures.This will be integrated with NAAVA designs for waste water treatment. We deal with the complete package, right from design to implementation, to the maintenance and thereby ensuring the customer needs are well-handled to meet their expectations.

2. Experience selling model

Our team works to sell the experience of living in an amphibious building through amphibious residential and recreational houses by NestAbide. The experience in any land or water source, following eco-friendly principles. This is a way to promote occupancy experience, how one feels while onboard. 

3. Partnership model 

Networks, communities and partnerships define NestAbide. Stakeholders in multiple levels from inhabitants of flood prone areas, contractors, representatives, policy and decision makers, international experts, partner organizations, consortiums, and  governments are being brought together at NestAbide to realize affordable and viable amphibious housing, NAAVA. 

Do you primarily provide products or services directly to individuals, to other organizations, or to the government?

Individual consumers or stakeholders (B2C)

What is your plan for becoming financially sustainable?

NestAbide is a firm that has achieved impressive results considering working on an adaptation technology, in a short time since its inception in 2019. Despite the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the company has already worked on international research projects and implemented a working prototype of an amphibious house within just two years. By the end of 2022, the company had completed several research, design, and structural consulting projects, as well as rejuvenation and renovation works. In addition, NestAbide introduced prefabricated buildings in Kerala, and completed the construction of one such building in 2022.

With the backing of the Government of Kerala, NestAbide is currently designing two amphibious houses that aim to provide low-income housing with subsidies for inhabitants living in flood-prone areas of Kerala. The firm also has multiple proposals and consortium projects with various international partner organizations, especially in the Netherlands, in the floating sector, hoping to establish in the near future.

According to material pricing in the fourth quarter of 2022, one low-cost NAAVA amphibious house with around 900 square feet of living area would cost roughly USD 25,000, which is equivalent to around $27 per square foot. With over 17,000 dwellings destroyed during the 2018 floods in Kerala, it is estimated that around 10% of those houses could be adapted for use as amphibious houses. This translates to a need for approximately 1,700 NAAVA to be built in Kerala alone.

The cost of NAAVA construction varies depending on the type of Buoyant Foundation materials and superstructure, with prices ranging from $27/sq.ft. to $ 40/sq.ft. and $55/sq.ft. for tourism. Assuming a margin of $4 per sq.ft., a single house with an area of 500 sq.ft. would generate a margin of $2,000. However, the margin varies depending on several factors, such as the location of the building, the purpose of the building (residential or recreational), and the area of the building. For larger buildings, a higher margin would be required and also, to cover the additional costs associated with construction, such as transportation of materials from mainland to a site without road access.

Share some examples of how your plan to achieve financial sustainability has been successful so far.

Established in September 2019, NestAbide went full-time just before the COVID-19 pandemic hit the world. Despite the challenges posed by the pandemic, the team remained focused on its mission and worked with Prof. Dr. Elizabeth C. English on an amphibious research project for the National Research Council of Canada in 2020. As part of this project, NestAbide undertook several flood modeling projects, rejuvenation projects, and other amphibious research training projects.

By 2022, NestAbide had gained considerable traction and received funding support from the Kerala Development Innovation and Strategic Council (KDISC). This was complemented by parallel private client projects for residential buildings, recreational buildings, and rejuvenation projects. All of these initiatives have contributed to NestAbide's revenue, which for the year 2022 alone is approximately 50,000 USD.

Given the significant Indian diaspora, this revenue figure is a testament to the value that NestAbide is providing to its customers and beneficiaries. While NestAbide initially focused on prototype construction and network development in 2021, its revenue growth in 2022 demonstrates the scalability and commercial viability of its business model. 

Solution Team

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